dyes and pigments
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symptomaticCopolymer(Polish (ABSt-cooperative-St)) consists of Avobenzone-BF2complicatedunilateral(ABSt) and styrene (St) were synthesized and used to tune emission colors, including solid-state white emission, fromYingshiunits as intervals. By changing the content of St, the emission color of ABSt in the obtained copolymer changed from green to blue-white to blue-white. fluorescencequantum yieldRelatively high content of solid polymers (Phieat=0.30–0.51) regardless of composition. Polymers have two main emission bands around 440 and 540 nm, which originate from individual molecules andamorphousConcentrated, that is. The fluorescent color changes depending on the scaleFluorescence intensity440 to 540 nm (eat440/eat540).Absorptive and fluorescent properties of polymersTetrahydrofuranregardless of the ABSt to St composition ratio, suggesting no intermolecular interaction between avobenzone-BF2(AB)Fluoroforwithin the polymer chain. The emission color of all polymers in solution is blue,Fluorescence spectroscopySame as ABSt in solution. Therefore, the emission color change observed in the solid state mainly results from the intermolecular interactions between the AB fluorophores in the interpolymer chains, as the polymers are interwoven with each other in the solid state. When a solid polymer is annealed,eat440/eat540Depending on the arrangement of the polymer chains, the lift-off and overall fluorescence spectra become similar to those emitted by the monomers. It can be concluded that the color change of the polymer mainly originates from the intermolecular interactions between the AB fluorophores in the chains between the polymers. We showed that poly(ABSt-cooperative-F) form an excellent uniform fluorescencethin polymer filmIn contrast, mixtures of methoxy AB(ABOMe) and poly(St) crystallized even at low ABOMe content in poly(St).
In recent years, light-emitting molecules that exhibit changes in emission properties with changes in concentration and environment have attracted much attention for applications as sensor materials [  ,  ,  ,  , [5 ] ] . For example, pyrene derivatives are known to form highly excimers derived from molecules in the condensed state and emit fluorescence in the longer wavelength region [  ,  ,  ,  ,  , [ 10 ]]. Fluorophores with high flatness and low Stokes shift, such as borodipyrromethane (BODIPY) derivatives, also exhibit green-red emission through self-quenching and dimer formation  ,  ,  ,  ,  ], ]. Difluoroborabobenzone (AB) complexes are known to emit light in the solid state and shock) exhibit mechanochromism [  ,  ,  ,  ,  ,   ,  ]. It has been reported that mechanochromic properties are caused by changes in molecular arrangement and a phase transition from a crystalline to an amorphous state. Ito and co-workers used spectroscopic and image analysis to reveal the assembly process of AB during solution evaporation . This process can be explained by a two-step nucleation model from the solution state through the amorphous state to the crystalline phase. Ikeda and co-workers also reported the effect of substituents and filling mode on the fluorescence properties of various AB derivatives [25,26]. Chujo and co-workers focused on boron-containing polymers because of their outstanding properties, such as high charge carrier mobility, excellent optical properties, high stability, and high processability. In particular, they reported the tuning of emission color and brightness of polymers containing boron complexes (such as boron diketoate or boron diimide) in the main chain and side chains , , , . ].
Nowadays, the preparation of white light emitting materials has received attention due to their potential applications in lighting devices and display media , , , , , , . ] , [ 38], , , . In general, white emission requires a combination of the three primary RGB colors (red, green, blue) or at least two complementary colors in appropriate composition ratios. If white emission can be achieved using a single fluorophore, the material will hold promise for practical applications. To date, several white emission methods using a single fluorophore have been published , , , . However, the emission of white light from a single molecule is still rare, and creating a white light-emitting material composed of a single fluorophore remains a challenge.
Here, we focus on the dual emission of blue (monomer) and yellow-green (amorphous) AB and the ability to produce white emission by combining their phases at appropriate feed ratios. However, AB sometimes crystallizes even in the polymer because the high planarity of the avobenzone moiety leads to high crystallinity. In this work, we report random copolymers (poly(ABSt-cooperative-St)) is composed of AB monomer (ABSt) and styrene (St), using St as a spacer to achieve multicolor and white emission in the solid state, as shown in Figure 1. Optical properties of poly(ABSt-)cooperative-St) in different media, such as solutions, bulk powders, and bulk films, are also discussed in this article.
Spectroscopic grade solvents were purified by distillation before use.1'H NMR (300 MHz) i13C NMR spectra (75MHz) were recorded on a BRUKER AV-300N spectrometer using tetramethylsilane (TMS) as internal standard. Infrared (IR) spectra were recorded on a JASCO FT/IR-4100 spectrometer. Mass spectra were obtained using a Bruker FT-ICR/solariX mass spectrometer. Elemental analysis was performed using a J-SCIENCE LAB JM10 CHN Analyzer Micro Corder. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
Optical properties of ABSt in solution and solid state
Basic optical properties of ABSt, e.g. UV-Vis. The absorption spectrum includes the molar extinction coefficient (electronic) and fluorescence spectra at a concentration of 1×10−5M in THF, as shown in Figure S3. ABSt has a maximum absorption at 374nm and aboveelectronic(55700 M−1centimeter−1) wave length. Two main emission bands at 407 and 427 nm and a high fluorescence quantum yield (Phieat=0.66). In addition, the dependence of emission characteristics on ABSt concentration
Polished (ABSt-cooperative-St) were synthesized and their emission properties were studied. Multicolor fluorescent materials with white emission have been successfully prepared using a single fluorophore. Poly(ABSt-cooperative-St) (entry 2) shows light emission (Phieat=0.46) and near pure white CIE (0.27, 0.35) (0.33, 0.33). The color change of the polymer was shown to be caused by intermolecular interactions between the ABSt fluorophores and not within the polymer
Declaration of competing interests
The authors declare that they have no known financial interests or personal relationships that could influence the work reported in this article.
This work was supported in part byJSPS Avatarcredit numberJP26107013(S. Kobatake)JP17H05253(F. egg) uScientific research on "photosynthesis" in the field of innovationIJP19H02686(F. egg) uScientific research (2)The authors (K. Shimizu and S. Kobatake) also thank the SiMS at MEXT, Japan, Osaka Prefectural University/Osaka City University Leadership in Graduate Program for Materials Science Leaders.
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Excerpt from the quote:
Boronitrile derivatives are widely used in biological imaging [1,2], environmental sensors [3,4], optical imaging  and optoelectronic devices  and other field coefficients and good photostability. In particular, the ability to fine-tune the color of boron atoms in polymers has attracted much research interest [7,8]. In general, the coloring effect can be attributed to the π-conjugation configuration of the polymer, such as changing the position of diketoboron or diimidic acid in the main chain or side chain, so that the colorful light-emitting polymers cover the entire visible The light range can be up to [9,10].
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