To date, although much research has been devoted to electrochemiluminescence (ECL) reactions involving ionic radicals of aromatic compounds in aprotic solvents , , the focus on reactions involving ionic perylene (PE) radicals is relatively small) [3 ] , ,  are known as typical fluorescent molecules. This may be due to the complexity of ECL emission, even for cationic radicals (PE+) and anionic radicals (PE−).That is, the answer between P.E+do sports−, it was observed that the excimer emission depends on the type of solvent and the concentration of PE, etc. , . In addition, the formation of single PE states (1polyethylene*) in an energy-deficient reaction system between PEs, confirmed by triplet-triplet neutralization without excimer emission+i benzil anion radicals, i tri-str-Toluidinski cationski radical i PE− Therefore, the long-wavelength excimer emission is independent of the energy gap that appears in the electron transfer reaction as a standard potential difference. Thus, the molecular aspects of the interactions that form the excimer emissions remain unclear.
This excited-state interaction in solution is difficult to observe with conventional ECL, using the single-electrode potential step method or the ring-disk electrode method. In contrast, the dual stop-flow electrolytic method developed by the authors allows the analysis since the range of observable ECL reactions is extended to energy-rich systems , .
To explain this in detail, the redox potentials of the aromatic compounds used in this work are shown in Figure 1. Using traditional methods, it is not possible to observe the reaction between the radical anion 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA).−) and polyethylene+Since PE reduction affects observations, PE should be performed simultaneously with DPA reduction.
In contrast, in the stop-flow method of double electrolysis, ECL can be observed in an optical element by mixing two solutions after the generation of cation radicals and anion radicals, respectively. Therefore, this method can target different reactions of energy-sufficient systems. Indeed, the emission spectrum of the ECL reaction indicated by the arrow in Figure 1 can be observed in this paper.
Systematic investigation of several ECL systems involving PE+do sports−, some clear investigation of the interactions leading to long-wavelength emissions is possible. Through these discussions, the purpose of this exchange is to show how the electrolytic double-stop flow method can efficiently analyze excited-state molecular interactions to produce complex emissions, which have never been explained before.
The details of the stopped-flow double electrolysis method have already been described . The use of two electrode columns, in which the carbon wool is tightly packed, allows the quantitative formation of cation radical solutions in one column and anion radical solutions in the other in a very short time. In this work, a 2-s constant current pulse electrolysis was used to generate two ionic radicals. Immediately after applying the electrolysis pulse to the double electrodes,
ECL reaction between PE+do sports−
Due to the ECL reaction between PE+do sports−It can be studied by conventional electrochemical methods and it has been reported that the ECL emission involving PE varies significantly depending on the type of solvent, especially in benzonitrile or acetonitrile (AN) . In this work, in order to elucidate the interactions that form the long-wave components in the ECL emission, AN was used as a solvent, since the emission can be intensively observed in this solvent .
Figure 2 shows the absorbance
Dual stop-flow electrolytic ECL measurements showing that long-wavelength ECL emission is observed in the PE reaction+s PE−and PE reaction+s PY−.Different from other ECL systems i.e. PE+– DPA−, polyethylene−– DPA+do sports−– Th+, emissions must come from1polyethylene*.
Accounting for differences in PE responses+– PY−do sports+– DPA−etc., as the most likely emission source, the formation of π-deposits
This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture in the field of Electrochemical Science Research at Ordered Interfaces, number 11118239.
Quote from (11)
Electrochemiluminescence impedance of perylene in acetonitrile
2004, Journal of electroanalytical chemistry
The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of perylene (PE) was studied by electrochemical measurements involving a new transfer function in the frequency domain. When a sufficient voltage is applied between two platinum electrodes in acetonitrile containing PE, the radical cation PE+i PE anionic radical−It is formed at the anode and cathode electrodes, respectively, by the PE reaction+s PE−Fluorescent. This luminescence is measured by a chemiluminescence detector connected to an electrochemical flow analysis cell. ECL impedance, the ratio of luminescence amplitude to current, is measured with a frequency response analyzer. The ECL impedance shows frequency dispersion because the ECL has an induction period due to the diffusion process after electrolysis. The ECL mechanism is discussed by comparing the experimental ECL impedance results with the theoretical equation.
Recent applications of electrochemiluminescence in chemical analysis
The analytical application of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) was reviewed with emphasis in 1997-2000. Recent developments in ECL of organics, metal complexes and clusters, cathodic ECL on oxide-covered electrodes, ECL-based immunosensors, DNA probe assays, and enzyme biosensors are described. Mechanisms are given for PAHs, luminol/hydrogen peroxide, some cathodic ECL reactions, and ruthenium complexes with and without covalents. New developments and improvements in techniques and instruments and their application to analysts are described. Applications of ECL for visualization of electrochemical processes and surface painting are reported.
Synthesis, electrochemistry and electrochemiluminescence of two additional BODIPY dipyridine homologues
2013, Journal of the American Chemical Society
Electrochemiluminescence systems as devices and sensors
2010, Electrochemistry of Functional Supramolecular Systems
ECL - Electrochemiluminescence
2007, Annual Report on Progress in Chemistry - Part C
Effect of surface immobilization on electrochemiluminescence of ruthenium-containing metal polymers
2006, Analytical Chemistry
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